PMP – Glossary

For the preparation of the PMP, I created my own glossary. This tool helped me a lot during my learning process.

3 registresstakeholders, risk and lessons learned
retrospective meeting or
lesson learned meetings
Agileis a scheduled review to record lessons learned
Activity attributesActivity attributes provide the primary data source for use in estimating the team and physical resources required for each activity on the activity list
Agile roles (1)
cross-functional team member (2)
Product owner (3)
Team faciliator
agile coach = scrum master
Agile(2) Consist of team members with all the skills necessary to produce a working product.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)is aimed to address contested changes on projects where the buyer and seller cannot reach an agreement on compensation for the change or cannot agree that a change has occurred.
ArtifactAgileTrès compliqué à trouver une définission simple. La traduction française ne va pas.
Les artefacts de Scrum représentent un travail ou une valeur. Ils sont conçus pour maximiser la transparence des informations clés.
Ainsi, tous ceux qui les inspectent ont la même base d'adaptation. Chaque artefact contient un engagement qui apporte l’information
nécessaire à la transparence et au focus rendant possible la mesure de la progression :

● Pour le Product Backlog, il s'agit de l'Objectif de Produit.
● Pour le Sprint Backlog, c'est l'Objectif de Sprint.
● Pour l'Increment, c'est la Definition of Done.

Ces engagements existent pour renforcer l'empirisme et les valeurs Scrum au sein de la Scrum Team et ses parties prenantes

Pour du predictive artificat inclus
project management processus, inputs, tools, techniques, outputs, EEFs and OPAs. (p558)
auditsTools & techTypically done by the PMO or the company’s internal audit department or an auditor external the organaization.

(1) procurement:

(2) quality: The goal of an audit is to evaluate whether the project is following the organization's quality policies and procedures documented in the quality management plan

(3) risk: ensures that the processes of the Project Risk Management Knowledge Area are being conducted properly and is not concerned with the risks or issues themselves
Backlog refinementAgileis an agile ceremony used to adjust, estimate en temp ou point d'effort and prioritize the backlog work items of a project.
Maybe once 1 week
basis of estimatescostis the documentation that contains additional details supporting the cost estimate and may include an indication of the range of possible estimates along with the confidence level of the final estimate
management plandocumentused to manage, control and close the project.

Specifies the development approach (such as predictive, iterative, agile, hybrid) that will be used

Three-point estimating: beta distribution (1)

Three-point estimating: triangular distribution (2)
tools & tech
three-point estimating uses three estimation scenarios: most likely, optimistic, and pessimistic.

(1) with ponderation ((most likely scenario * 4) + best-case scenario + worst-case scenario) / 6 = cost estimate

(2) (most likely scenario + best-case scenario + worst-case scenario) / 3 = cost estimate
Bid documentscostRequest For Information (RFI) (demande d'information)
Request For Proposal (RFP) (demande de devis)
Request For Quotation (RFQ) (appel d'offre)

are typically sent by the procuring organization to prospective sellers so they can develop a bid response

(PMBOK P477)
bottom-up estimationtools & techon va voir chque collaborateurs pour lui demander d'estimer sa charge. Ca coute et c'est précis.
bubble chartchart & diagramGraphe x/y/z (z étant la grosseur d'une bubble) et au lieu d'un point, nous avons une bulle
Burdown chart (1)
Burnup chart (2)
chart & diagram(1) Remaining work of the current sprint - One drawback to burndown charts is that a change in project scope can affect the trendline.
(2) work done

The main difference between the two is that the burnup chart can show changes in scope.

In a burn-down chart, these changes to scope will be invisible and it will appear the team is getting less done. In a burn-up chart, you can clearly see the scope increase and the actual progress by the team.
business caseeconomic feasibility study used to establish the validity of the benefits of a selected component. Is used as a basis for the authorization of further management activities.
It can provide the project manager with all the initial information used to justify the project.

Should include business needs, analysis of the situation, recommendation, and evaluation. The benefits management plan is the documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by the project. The business case and the benefits management plan comprise the business documents that are used to create the project charter.

Cause-and-effect or
Why-why or
Ishikawa or
Fishbone diagram
chart & diagramest un outil de résolution de problème d'entreprise.

This type of diagram breaks down the causes of the problem statement identified into discrete branches, helping to identify the main or root cause of the problem.
Caves and commonspace where individuals can work without being interrupted.
change control board (CCB)change goes through the CCB
Change logdocumentis a comprehensive list of change requests submitted during the project and their current status
charterdocumentdescribes the project vision, mission, purpose, objectives, success criteria, high-level requirements, risks, assumptions, the list of key stakeholders, EEF, and the name of the assigned project manager and milestone schedule and key deliverables and also who sign off the project.
Why -> project SMART (key) objectives, success criterias and project purpose
What -> project scope, exigences de haut niveau, key deliverables and key dates
Who -> will be working on the project including stakeholders, project sponsor and the project team

formally authorizes (signed) the existence of a project and provde the manager to apply for organizational resources.
number 1
number 2
contingency reserve
(management reserve)
costare funds allocated for know riks taht have been specifically identified.
Contingency reserves are associated with the known-unknowns, which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework.

Contingency reserves are part of the cost baseline. A change request is not typically required to access the contingency reserves

The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration or a fixed number of work periods.
PMBOK p202, 255
control chartchart & diagramis a graph used to study how a process changes over time
show whether a process is stable or not.
Corrective actionare taken when a project has deviated from the planned scope, schedule, cost, or quality requirements
cost baselinecostis the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures.
It is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. The cost baseline is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities
CPIcostThe cost performance index (CPI) is earned value (EV) divided by actual cost (AC)
With a CPI of 1.5, the project is under budget; therefore, adding additional team members is a viable option for bringing the project schedule back into alignment with the schedule baseline.
It measures how efficiently the project team is accomplishing the work.

= Earned Value (EV) / Actual cost (AC)
critical pathThe critical path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path on a project, which also represents the shortest possible duration of a project.
‘Total float’ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date
‘Free float’ is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor
It's possible to add a project buffer and a feeding buffer

Place a ‘project buffer’ before the target project finish date. Place ‘feeding buffers’ before the end of a non-critical chain where it feeds into the critical chain.
daily scrum (daily stand-ups)Agilemeeting journalier max 15 minutes pour s'assurer que la bonne personne fait la bonne à faire
How did your previous actions help achieve the sprint goal?
What will you do today to accomplish the sprint goal?
Is there something that is blocking the progress towards the sprint goal?
Decouplingis a strategy to address systems-based complexity, like the one presented by the scenario
Defect repairis an intentional activity to modify a non-conforming product or product component
Definition of Done (DoD)it’s a checklist of all the acceptance criteria that are common to every single user story required to be met so that a deliverable can be considered ready for customer use.
Declaring early in the project phase of an agreed-upon definition of what constitutes "done" aligns all stakeholders to what is to be expected
definition of readyis used to determine whether the project work is ready to be started on
Digital scrum
discretionarycontraire de mandatory
Douglas McGregorThéorie X sont les personnes qui n'aiment pas le travail. Il est alors nécessaire de fixer des règles strictes et contrôles
Théorie Y sont les personnes qui aiment travailler. L'organisation est alors construite autour de la confiance.
Estimate At Completion (EAC)(1)
Estimate To Complete (ETC)(2)
Budget At Completion (BAC)(3)
cost(1) AC + (BAC – EV)
(2) EAC - AC
(3) is a measure that is often used in earned value management to track the actual cost of a project against its forecasted budget.
Earnred Value (EV)
Actual Costs (AC)
Planned Value (PV)
costEV = is the sum of the planned value of the completed work (il s'agit du temps effectif qui peut être plus petit ou plus grand que le temps planifié)
Eanred Value Analysis (EVA)
earned schedule ES (Schedule variance)schedule
Schedule variance (SV) = earned schedule (ES) - actual time (AT)
Durée du project planifiée = 1 année
52 weeks = 1 année
26 weeks = 1/2 année
20 weeks = moitié du projet
AT = 20 weeks
ES Earned value Schedule = 20 + 6 donc 26
SV = ES - AT -> 26 - 6 donc 20

Earned schedule = temp théorique du projet
Schedule variance = différence de temps entre effectif et planifié

Donc Différence = temps de projet planifié - temp de projet actuel
Enterprise environmental factors (EEF) (voir OPAs)refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project.

Skill assessments
Lesson learneed repository ?
epicAgilesont d'importantes tâches décomposées en un ensemble de stories et plusieurs epics forment une initiative
eXtreme Programming XPAgilesoftware development method AGILE 102
Deux points: 1 courage, respect and communication 2 travailler sur les délivrables qui amènent le plus de valeur
fast trackingTools & techon fait des tâches en parallèle, ça ajoute du risque, car on commence des activités avant que d'autres soient terminées
feedback loopPMP -
Fishbowl windowsA long-lived video conferencing link between the various locations in which the team is dispersed. People start the link at the beginning of a workday and close it at the end. In this way, people can see and engage spontaneously with each other, reducing the collaboration lag.
fist-of-fiveTools & techis a technique for quickly getting feedback or gauging consensus during a meeting.

Participants indicate their level of support for the proposal or idea by raising a closed fist (indicating no support) to five fingers (indicating full support). If any participant holds up fewer than three fingers, the participant is given the opportunity to voice their concerns regarding the proposal. Once all of the participants raise three or more fingers, a consensus has been reached.
Frederik HerzbergThéorie deux facteurs. Les facteurs élémentaires tels quel le salair, la relation avec le responsable. Et les factures de motivation tel que le statut, le développent personnel
Graduation des éléments dans ces deux groupes de facteur avec un curseur positif-négatif
Gantt chartchart & diagramA Gantt chart is a bar chart of the project schedule that shows activities listed on the vertical axis and dates on the horizontal axis.
MS Project
The activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
The Gantt chart is a graphical depiction of the project schedule; it does not show a rate of completion.
gold platinghappens when the project team adds extra features that were not part of the original scope, usually as “freebies” for the client
IncrementLivrable qui peut être donné durant un sprint. Il doit ajouter de la valeur directe pour être utilisable.
Dès qu’un élément du Product Backlog satisfait à la Definition of Done, il se transforme en Increment.
information radiators or
big visible charts (BVCs)
is the generic term for any of a number of handwritten, drawn, printed or electronic displays which a team places in a highly visible location, so that all team members as well as passers-by can see the latest information at a glance
Ishikawa diagramchart & diagramAn Ishikawa diagram is a diagram that shows the causes of an event and is often used in manufacturing and product development to outline the different steps in a process, demonstrate where quality control issues might arise, and determine which resources are required at specific times.
ITTOInput Tool Technique Output (1ère partie du PMBOK)
kaizenest une méthode de gestion de la qualité basée sur une multitude de petites améliorations faites au quotidien (amélioration continue)
kick-off meetingthe purpose of a project kick-off meeting is to communicate the objectives of the project, gain the commitment of the team for the project and explain the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders.
Lean Six Sigmaest une marque déposée de Motorola désignant une méthode structurée de management visant à une amélioration de la qualité et de l'efficacité des processus.
lessons learned registerdocumentis a project document used to record knowledge gained during a project so that it can be used later in the current project
lessons learned repositorydocument
is a store of historical information about lessons learned from projects that can be used to improve performance for future projects.
This is an organizational process asset
management reserve
(different than contingency reserve)
costare an amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within the scope of the project. Management reserves are part of the project budget, but these funds are not included in the sum of the control accounts.
are additional funds to cover unforeseen risks that could impact the project.

are used to cover the costs of unknown unknowns
Master Services Agreement MSAA master service agreement, sometimes known as a framework agreement, is a contract reached between parties, in which the parties agree to most of the terms that will govern future transactions or future agreements.

Can include which the approach (adaptive or tradiational) needs to be selected the the vendor.
requirements matrix
milestone (key)marks an important point in the project evolution and timeline
Milestone chartis a project schedule that shows the anticipated completion dates of major project deliverables. A milestone has no duration.
OPAs (lié avec EEFs)Organizational Process Assets
factors and organizational which are internal to the enterprise

plans, processes, procedures, templates... assets that influence the project (p557)
Organizational process assets (OPA) (lié avec EEFs)include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all the performing organizations involved in the project that can be used to execute or govern the project
Organizational Process Assets OPAs
Pair programmingAgileis an agile software development technique in which two developers work side-by-side: one programmer writes the code, the other reviews the code as it is entered. A feedback loop is immediate.
pareto chartchart & diagramis a type of histogram that shows how many results were created by each identified cause and then places them in order of occurrence
shows results ordered by frequency of occurrence
is to determine the main contributors of defects
relates to quality management
planning pokertools & tech
technique d'estimation d'effort, concencus, chaque personne révèle une carte avec un nombre de 1 à 100 indiquant le temps nécessaire pour effectuer l'oppération. S'il y une grande différence, une conversation est ouverte et ensuite il y a à nouveau, un autre vote.
PMOBureau qui va promouvoir la gestion de projet dans l’entreprise et soutenir l’activité. Coordonne, standardise la gouvernance, les templates, les techniques et méthodes.
supportive, controlling, or directive
Model conflict Speed Leasthe author Speed Leas developed a model that categorized five levels of conflict.

problem to solve (1), disagreement (2), contest (3), crusade (4), world war (5)
Procurement documentationprocurement include bid documents
• Procurement strategy
• Procurement statement of work (SOW)
• Bid documents
• Make-or-buy decisions
• Independent cost estimates

and includes
• source selection criteria
procurement Statement Of Work (SOW)procurement l'énoncé des travaux pour les marchés publics
Product backlogAgileest une liste ordonnée et émergente de ce qui est nécessaire pour améliorer le produit.
Les éléments du product backlog doivent être affinés pour acquérir un degré de transparence comprenant des attributs tels qu'une description, un ordre et une taille

stakeholder is responsible for prioritizing items on the product backlog after an iteration.
The product owner creates the backlog for and with the team. It helps the teams see how to deliver the highest value without creating waste.
produitquel lien avec un livrable ?
Project funding requirementsscopeprovide the project team with the details on projected expenditures and other funding information
Project management information system (PMIS)ensure that stakeholders can easily retrieve the information they need in a timely manner
Project network diagramschart & diagramis a graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities
identify critical path tasks and show the project network logic.
could be used to determine the need for resource optimization techniques and to identify conflicts with logical activity relationships
project retrospectiveAgileA project retrospective meeting is a structured session, in the form of either a workshop or a meeting, which gives teams time to reflect on a completed project.
The purpose of this type of session is for teams to learn from both the successes and the failures in order to improve and promote success in the future.
project team directoryis a documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information
Proof of conceptcould involve prototyping, feasibility study, storyboarding, development of use cases or user stories, or any other activity that can demonstrate potential business value
evidence, typically deriving from an experiment or pilot project, which demonstrates that a design concept, business proposal, etc. is feasible.
pull communicationcommunicationinclude posting information on websites, wikis, knowledge repositories, bulletin boards, etc.
is all about providing group access to common information. The receiver, however, must recover this information. This method is used for a large audience who require access to information for their use.
When your communication is informational, make use of this kind of information. If a receiver does not read your message, it will in no way affect the project. Since information will be accessed only when the need arises, pull communication is known to be the most appropriate kind of communication.
push communicationcommunicationincludes memos, letters, emails, reports, faxes, etc. It is not face-to-face but is instead typically done through some written medium. The one disadvantage of this type of communication is that the sender can only identify that the message has been successfully sent.
is preferable when you distribute information, yet are not looking for an immediate response—or if the matter you are trying to convey is not urgent or sensitive.
Reactive thinkingopposite of being pro-active
release planningAgileA very high-level plan for multiple Sprints (e.g. three to twelve iteration) is created during the Release planning. It is a guideline that reflects expectations about which features will be implemented and when they are completed. It also serves as a base to monitor progress within the project
Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS)resourceis a list of resources needed to deliver a project. It comprises everything that costs money, including people, tools, materials, licenses, places, and time.

This document includes information on the composition of the team and may help understand what knowledge is available.

is used for planning, managing and controlling project work.
resource calendarsresourceare used to identify working days and shifts wherein (où) each is available
risk breakdown structure (RBS)riskCatégories des risques (peut déjà s'effectuer à l'initialisation)
technical risk
management risk
commercial risk
external risk
(human risk)
PMBOK p406
Requirements traceability matrixscopeis a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
The matrix is good for tracking stakeholder requirements throughout the life of the project

The requirements traceability matrix links product requirements to deliverables and helps to ensure each requirement in the requirements documentation is tested.
The matrix provides an overview of the tests that should be performed to verify the requirements.
Schedule variance SV (earned schedule)scheduleSchedule variance (SV) = earned schedule (ES) - actual time (AT)
scope baselinescope(p570) is the approved version of a scope statement WBS and its associated dictionary.
Scope Creepscope
scrum ceremoniesAgileThere are five scrum ceremonies, sprint planning, daily standup, sprint review, sprint retrospective and product backlog grooming.
Scrum Of Scrums (SoS)Agilewhere representatives from each scrum team meet to coordinate their activities between the projects.
Shu-Ha-Ri modeldescribes the progression of skills acquisition by an individual or group.
nous devons commencer par le niveau Shu avant de passer au niveau Ha pour adapter le processus ou au niveau Ri pour inventer un nouveau processus adapté.
Three Sigma
Six Sigma

Defects per million opportunities (DPMO)
is a common quality improvement methodology that may be useful during the Manage Quality process.
From the statistical point of view, the term Six Sigma is defined as having no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO) or a success rate of 99.9997%.
SPIscopeSchedule Performance Index
Measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value.
Less than 1.0 indicates less work was completed.
Greater than 1.0 indicates that more work was completed

= Earned Value (EV -> PV of the work already done) / Planned Value (PV)
Sprint BacklogAgileest un plan élaboré par et pour les Developers. Il s'agit d'une image très visible et en temps réel du travail que les Developers prévoient d'accomplir durant le Sprint afin d'atteindre l'Objectif de Sprint. Par conséquent, le Sprint Backlog est mis à jourtout au long du Sprint selon ce qu'on en apprend.

Pourquoi: objectif
Quoi: l'ensemble des éléments
Comment: plan d'action
spikeAgilea short interval in a project d'une durée prédeterminée during which a team conduct research of a solution to prove its viability
Spikes are an agile technique used to address or better understand an unplanned circumstance or task
sponsorintervient au niveau finance
sprint planningAgileSprint planning is the beginning of the sprint process. The development team, scrum master, and the product owner all participate during this stage. Others may join as well when both team and product owner agree it's appropriate. The scrum master will provide data on the team's most recent and average velocity during this meeting.
2 à 4h max
sprint retrospectiveAgileThis meeting is about the team. The sprint retrospective is a recurring meeting held at the end of a sprint used to discuss what went well during the previous sprint cycle and what can be improved for the next sprint. The Agile sprint retrospective is an essential part of the Scrum framework for developing, delivering, and managing complex projects.
srpint reviewAgileUn meeting pour discuter du produit. Un meeting qui survient au denier jour du sprint avec le product owner, la team, scrum master et les parties prenantes pour discuter des livrables et obtenir des feedback.
Stacey matrixIt is designed to help understand the factors that contribute to the complexity and choose the best management actions to address different degrees of complexity. It was not specifically designed to address project delivery but is just as relevant to that area as any other.
stakeholder engagement assessment matrixdisplays gaps between current and desired engagement levels of project stakeholders.
Stand-up meetingAgileRéunion le matin des participants à un projet se tiennent debout en cercle afin de faciliter les échanges et l'efficacité de l'entrevue. Face à face, chacun leur tour, sans distinction de poste, de manière très informelle. L'échange se fait entre tous et non à l'attention d'un seul et même participant. En général, le laps de temps dévolu aux "Stand-ups" est relativement court : comptez un minimum de 5 minutes et un maximum de 15.
story pointAgileStory point is a relative size unit of measure used to estimate the effort required to implement a user story.
Fibronacci, T-shirt size
AGILE p155
Swarming (pairing, mobbing)Tools & techis a technique in which multiple team members focus collectively on resolving a specific impediment
system thinking taking a holistic view of how project/program elements interact with each other
teamleta "mini-team", a team within a team
top-down estimationLe responsable connait l'estimation car il a de l'expérience, il a déjà effectué 150 fois cette activité et donc donne un prix plutot précis et donc impose son estimation
tornado diagramchart & diagrambar chart where the data categories are listed vertically instead of standard horizontal presentation
also called butterfly chart
Utilisé pour l'analyse de risques
The risks are ordered from the highest degree of uncertainty to the most stable thereby allowing a visual representation of the risks
total floatcostrefers to the amount of time an activity can be delayed or extended from its early start without delaying the project finish date
triangular distributionp245
triple contraintestemp, contenu, coût
T-shapedgeneralizing specialists
Tuckman ladderteamModel used to describe team development

(1) forming : team members meet and learn about the project and their formal roles.
is characterized by a low level of trust and conflict avoidance among the team members.

(2) storming : the team begins to address the project work.
is characterized by high levels of conflict

(3) norming : the team begins to work together and adjust their work habits and behaviors.
the team members learn to trust each other.

(4) performing : well-organized unit. They are independant and work through issues smoothly and effectively.
is characterized by a relatively low level of conflict, but a high level of trust.

(5) adjourning : the team completes the work and move on form the project. Staff is released.
User storyAgileAGILE p155
VelocityAgile4 à 8 itérations pour savoir comment une équipe travail.
the sum of the story point sizes for the features actuallay completed in this iteration
is the rate at which deliverables are produced, validated, and accepted per iteration.
Valeur Monétaire Attendue
walkthroughAn inspection is a structured review of the work being performed by the vendor. On a construction project, inspections may involve walkthroughs of the site by both the buyer and the vendor to ensure a mutual understanding of the work in progress.
is the examination of a project deliverable to determine if it conforms to documented standards.
Walkthroughs are step-by-step software solutions that guide users through a series of actions to help them complete a process.
WBS Dictionaryscopeis a document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the WBS.

May includes an identifier, description of work, responsible, schedule milestones, resources required, cost estimates, quality requirements, and acceptance criteria.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)scopeis a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work. The lowest level of the WBS is a work package with a unique identifier
WIPWork in progress
Wireframes Avant le développement d'une application, plutôt que de prendre du temps pour créer l'interface, il est astucieux de créer un wireframe avec un logiciel ou alors simplement sur une feuille de papier.
Il s'agira de créer l'interface au plus simple pour la simuler et la valider avec des utilisateurs avant de la créer.
working items
XP development
xp programmingq
Agile4 eyes
One of the XP core practices is to deliver software in small releases
Finish-to-Start (FS)
Start-to-Start (SS)
Start-to-Finish (SF)
Finish-to-Finish (FF)
First activity must be finished before the second
Second activity can only starts when the first has started
First activity cannot be finised before the second has finished
Second activity cannot finish until the first activiy has finished

relationship between activities
PMBOK p190
risk (threat)riskFive alternative strategies
Escalate: exceed the scope or manager's authority, will be escalate at the program level, porfolio = se référer à la gouvernance
Avoid: eliminate the threat or protect from its impact = on annule
Transfer: transfer to a third party to manage the risk = assurance
Mitigate (Atténuer): action it taken to reduce the probability of occurence and/or impact of a threat = une solution
Accept: acknowledges the existence of a threat, but no predictive action is taken = on ne traite pas
PMBOK p442
risk (opportunities)riskEscalate: exceed the scope or manager's authority, will be escalate at the program level, porfolio = se référer à la gouvernance
Exploit: when the enterprise want to ensure that the opportunity is realized
Share: transferring ownership to a third party and share some of the benefit
Enhance: increase the probability and/or impact (what's the difference with Exploit ?)
Accept: acknowledges the existence of an opportunity but no predictive action is taken = on ne traite pas

PMBOK p444
Kanbanis an agile method for managing work with an emphasis on, among the others, limiting work in progress (WIP) and visualizing the flow of work.
Bidder conferencecostare meetings with prospective sellers that take place prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal
themesagileA theme is a wide area of focus that helps an Agile team to keep track of their organizational goals — think of it as a label that can be used to group similar activities. A theme helps to define the common characteristics between different areas and unite them under one heading
Themes are the highest hierarchical level of the product when the project is using agile methods
Agile work structureAgileIntitiative -> Epics -> Stories -> Taks
schedule network diagramchart & diagramIs this a gant chart ?
Earned Value Management (EVM)costis one of the tailoring considerations associated with the cost management processes. An example is weekly cost and schedule performance information.
war roomis a centralized meeting space where project teams and stakeholders can co-locate and visually communicate project activities. The idea of a war room is to physically gather the entire team into a ‘single location’ to facilitate communication, problem-solving, risk mitigation and status reporting.  The single location can be physical, virtual or some combination of the two based on the specifics of the organization’s structure.
Scatter diagramchart & diagramis a graph that shows the relationships between two variables
BenchmarkingTools & techBenchmarking involves comparing actual or planned products, processes or the project’s quality standards to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices,
generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
Analogous estimatingTools & tech
is a technique for estimating the cost and duration of a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
is typically used when there is limited information about the current project.
bottom-up estimateTools & tech
(during the Estimate Costs process ) is used to estimate individual work packages or activities to the greatest level of specified detail.
ROM estimateTools & tech
Rough Order of Magnitude
estimate provides a range of -25% to +75%
$750,000 to $1.75 million
level resources - resource levelingTools & techp211, 212, 215, 207
is a resource optimization technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints
Resource leveling can often cause the original critical path to change.
Niveler les ressources. Schedule optimization technique. Balancing the demand for resources with the available resource.
Document analysisTools & techanalyzing existing documentation and identifying information relevant 
Alternatives analysisTools & techThis analysis is a simple comparison of identified options used to select the best option for risk response
Nominal group techniqueTools & techis a structured form of brainstorming using a voting process to rank the generated ideas
Multicriteria decision analysisTools & techis a technique that uses a matrix to provide a systematic approach to establishing criteria used to evaluate and rank ideas
DecompositionTools & techis a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts
Affinity diagramchart & diagramis a business tool used to organize ideas and data
active listeningTools & techinvolve acknowledging, clarifying and confirming, understanding, and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension
"it sounds like", "if I understand you correctly", or "correct me if I'm wrong"
Decision tree analysisTools & techshows several alternative paths, each with associated costs and potential risks
Product analysisTools & techfor projects that have a product as a deliverable, product analysis can be used as a tool to define the scope of the product
monte carloTools & tech
uses iterative analysis to simulate the likelihood of a particular outcome or risk associated with the project.

Variability risks can be addressed using Monte Carlo analysis

Computer software is typically used to simulate project activity several thousand times using random input for each iteration resulting in a range of possible outcomes
sensitivity analysisTools & techhelps determine which projects risk or uncertainty sources have the most potential impact on project outcomes
Resource smoothingTools & techis a resource optimization technique in which activities may only be delayed within their free and total float, thus not affecting the critical path
crashing - crash the scheduleTools & techOn ajoute du personnel, ça coute plus, ajoute du risque et ne garantie pas d'accélérer pour autant
fast trackingTools & techis a schedule compression technique in which activities normally done in a sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration.
Assumption logdocumentis first created as part of the (4.1) Develop Project Charter process as a project document used to record all assumptions and constraints
Issue logdocumentis a project document of the 'project management plan', where all the issues are recorded and tracked with the final solution. The issue log is updated as a result of monitoring and controlling activities throughout the project's life cycle.

An issue is a current condition or situation that may have a negative impact on the project objectives.
risk workshoptools & techis to review previously identified project risks, assess risk probability and impact, categorize and prioritize risks, assign risk owners, and identify additional risks
timeboxAgilea fixed period of time, 1 week, 3 weeks, or 1 month, etc.
an iteration is a timeboxed cycle of development in which the work needed to deliver value is performed
Cycle timeAgileis a term borrowed from lean manufacturing and refers to the time it takes for a work item to go through part of an overall process.

= Work in progress (WIP) / Throughput
Work performance data (1)
Work performance information (2)
Work performance reports (3)
(1) Output de direct and manage project work. Il s'agit de data tel que des KPI ou des mesures. Des données brutes.

Work performance data is the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work

(2) s work performance data that is analyzed in context and compared against the project management plan during the controlling processes.

(3) are the organized presentation of the work performance information.
benefits management planinclude target benefits, strategic alignment, a timeframe for realizing benefits, benefits owner, metrics, assumptions, and risks
Social engineeringtools & techis the psychological manipulation of people to gain information or confidential data
Political awarenesstools & techrelates to the understanding of power relationships within and around the project
Risk data quality assessmentriskevaluates the degree to which the risk data is accurate and reliable
Risk probability and impact assessmenttools & tech
is an example of data analysis techniques that can be used in qualitative risk analysis
Cost of conformance
cost of nonconformance
costis the money spent during a project to avoid failures.
is the money spent during and after the project because of failures.
Appraisal costs

prevention costs

failure costs

cost-benefit costs
costinclude expenses related to evaluating, measuring, auditing, and testing the product or service.

are related to the prevention of poor quality in the products.

are the money spent during and after the project because the product or service did not meet the expectations of the customer.

cost-benefit analysis, which is a financial tool used to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives in order to determine the best alternative in terms of benefits.
Salience modeltools & tech
describes classes of stakeholders based on assessments of their power, urgency, and legitimacy, which is useful in determining the relative importance of the identified stakeholders
Leadership stylesLaissez-faire: allowing the team to make their own decisions
Transactional: focus on goal, feedback; management by exception
Servant leader: put other people first
Transformational: empowering followers through idealized behaviors
Charismatic: able to inspire, is high-energy, self-confident
Interactional: a combination of different styles
product ownerAgile
is responsible for the 'what' aspect of the project while the team is responsible for the 'how' aspect
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)AgileWhen using constraint-driven (DSDM) delivery, the time and cost are fixed, whereas the scope is variable. As opposed to the traditional approach where features are fixed and price and time are variable.
Rolling wave planningscheduleis an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while work further in the future is planned at a higher level.
Cost Of Quality (COQ)tools & tech
s a data analysis technique that can be used to determine the optimal COQ which reflects the appropriate balance for investing in the cost of prevention and appraisal (cost of conformance) to avoid failure costs (cost of nonconformance).
Parametric estimatingtools & tech
is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate the cost based on historical data and project parameters.
is the best technique to use when the information available about the current project is coupled with the historical information from the previous project.
What-if scenario analysistools & tech
is an example of a data analysis technique that can be used as part of the Develop Schedule process or Control Schedule process to evaluate various potential combinations and variables to predict possible outcomes.
Job shadowingtools & tech
is a type of on-the-job training that allows an interested employee to follow and closely observe another employee performing the role. This type of learning is usually used to onboard new employees into an organization or into a new role.
risk reviewriskexamines and documents the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with overall project risk and with identified individual project risks
Firm Fixed Price (FFP)(1)

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)(2)

Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF)(3)

Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF)(4)

Fixed-price microdeliverables (5)
costFixed-price (FP*) VS Cost Plus (CP*)
Fixed VS Incentive

(1) the most commonly used contract type, involves setting a fixed total price for a defined product, service, or result. Make sense when the requirements are stable.
(2) is used when the scope of work is expected to change significantly during the project and involves reimbursements for allowable costs for work performed by the seller versus a set price.
(3) is used when the scope of work is expected to change significantly during the project and is not based on a fixed price.
It involves reimbursements for actual costs incurred for work completed and award fees are earned solely on the buyer's subjective determination of the seller's performance.
(4) The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs for performing the contract work
and receives a predetermined incentive fee based on achieving certain performance objectives as set forth in the contract.
to-complete performance index (TCPI)costis a measure of the cost performance required to be achieved with the remaining resources to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.
In other words, the TCPI is the cost performance efficiency that must be maintained to complete the project based on the specified budget.

A TCPI value equal to 1.0 means you are right on budget, and as long as you maintain the present cost performance index (CPI), you should not exceed the project budget.
A TCPI value greater than 1.0 means you need to take a stricter cost management approach or you will exceed your budget at completion (BAC).
A TCPI value less than 1.0 indicates you are within your budget and have done an excellent job of managing project costs.

= (BAC - EV) / (EAC - AC)
control accountcostA control account is a management control point where scope, budget, and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement. A control account has two or more work packages, though each work package is associated with a single control account.
organizational procedures linkscostThe work breakdown structure (WBS) (Section 5.4) provides the framework for the cost management plan, allowing for consistency with the estimates, budgets, and control of costs. The WBS component used for the project cost accounting is called the control account. Each control account is assigned a unique code or account number(s) that links directly to the performing organization’s accounting system.
To-Complete Performance Index TCPIschedule
calculates that new rate of production is necessary from this point in the project to the end to meet the predefined targets.
Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB)cost
An integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against
which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance.
funding limit reconciliationcostis a process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures.
Stacey Complexity ModelArea A represents a low degree of both technical uncertainty and requirements uncertainty. Projects that are mapped within this area are referred to as simple projects and would benefit from a predictive life cycle.

Area B represents a low-to-medium degree of both technical uncertainty and requirements uncertainty. Projects that are mapped within this area are referred to as complicated projects and would benefit from one of the adaptive life cycles.

Area C represents projects with one uncertainty aspect being high and the other uncertainty aspect being low-to-medium. Projects that are mapped within this area are referred to as complex projects and would benefit from an adaptive life cycle.

Area D represents a high degree of both technical uncertainty and requirements uncertainty. Projects that are mapped within this area are referred to as chaotic (or anarchy) projects and are unlikely to be even selected as feasible.
Multi-tiered structuretools & tech
is an agile or hybrid contracting technique that best works for procurements in which some aspects are well-defined up-front while others are unknown.
This technique uses a master services agreement (MSA) to document fixed items and a lightweight statement of work to capture those that are yet to be discovered.
Remember the futuretools & techis a collaborative game to aid in the development of the project vision.
Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU)is an agreement that may be used as an input into the development of the project charter.
Knowledge management
Crystal yellow, orange, redThe Crystal family of methodologies use different colours to denote the “weight” of which methodology to use. If a project were a small one a methodology such as Crystal Clear, Crystal Orange or Crystal Yellow may be used or if the project was a mission-critical one where human life could be endangered then the methods Crystal Diamond or Crystal Sapphire would be used.

Yellow–up to 20 people
Orange–up to 40 people
Red–up to 80 people
Scrumbanagileis a project management methodology that combines two common Agile strategies: Scrum and Kanban.
Critical thinkingGathering unbiased well-balanced information and applying inductive, deductive, and abductive reasoning.
lightweight estimation methodsagile
For projects with high degrees of uncertainty or those where the scope is not yet fully defined. Lightweight estimation can be used to generate a fast, high-level forecast of project labor costs, which can then be easily adjusted as changes arise.
ThroughputagileThroughput is the number of items a system can deliver in a given period of time.
Fred Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)is a scoring system can help evaluate those competencies as it lets the respondent rate their coworkers by ultimately assessing the respondent's motivation type - task-oriented or human relations-oriented.
Team charter or
Social contract or
working agreements
establish standards of behavior of team members.

Agile best practices limit the team working agreements to the top five to ten items.
stakeholder analysisresults in a list of stakeholders and relevant information such as their positions in the organization, roles on the project, expectations, attitudes, and their interest in information about the project.
resolving conflicttools & techATTENTION A REVOIR - ERREUR

withdrawal/avoiding = Avoid conflict
smoothing/accommodating Lose (PM) and Win (team)
compromising/reconciling = Lose (PM) and Lose (team)
forcing/directing = Win Lose
collaborating/problem-solving = Win (PM) and Win (team)
Kanban board or
Task board
agileis an information radiator that serves the dual purpose of giving a development team a convenient mechanism for organizing their work and a way to see at a glance how much work is left to be completed in an iteration.
Project team assignmentsare a key output of the Acquire Resources process
organizational structure(1) organic or simple: PM is called a coordinator and has no control over the project budget.

(2) matrix: in a matrix environment, project managers often have little or no direct authority over team members
single-list-of-work-and-changes approachrefers to the product backlog
Time-boxingtools & techis an effective tool that can be used on projects where requirements are anticipated to change frequently
Recurring retrospectivesis an agile/hybrid practice that reflects on work performed, evaluates the processes, and suggests any improvements. By conducting recurring retrospectives, quality issues can be detected earlier in the project life cycle comparing to the traditional methods.
constraint-driven deliveryagileis a common strategy for agile projects, where the cost and/or time are fixed, and the scope is allowed to vary.
Functional managementis the most common type of organizational management. The organization is grouped by areas of specialty within different functional areas (e.g., finance, marketing, and engineering). Some refer to a functional area as a "silo".
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package
the change management planProject management planprovides the direction for managing the change control process and documents the roles and responsibilities of the CCB.

Element of the project management plan.
Reserve analysiscostcompares the amount of the contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining at any time in the project to determine if the remaining reserve is adequate
User story mappingis a visual practice for organizing work into a useful model to help understand the sets of high-value features to be created over time, identify omissions in the backlog, and effectively plan releases that deliver value to users.

uses sticky notes and sketches to outline the interactions that the team expects users to go through
Schedule of servicescostis a document that describes outsourced work items that are subject to change, such as services rates and product descriptions.

This document may supplement a master service agreement (MSA) used to secure the fixed work items.
Cost-reimbursable contractcostis a type of contract that involves payments to the seller (vendor) for the seller's actual costs, plus a fee that represents the seller's profit.
The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)agile
Leads and lagstools & tech
A lead is the amount of time a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.
A lag is the amount of time a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.

used during the Sequence Activities process to produce a project schedule network diagram.
team checkpointsagileteam checkpoints refer to agile practices such as daily standups, iteration reviews, retrospectives, etc.
secondary risk (1)
risk residual (2)
risk(1) is a risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response.

(2) is a risk that remains after risk response have been implemented.
Organizational structureFunctional: authority of the project manager is "Little or none"

Weak matrix: authority of the project manager is "Low"

Balanced matrix: authority of the project manager is "Low to moderate"

Strong matrix: authority of the project manager is "Moderate to high"

Project-oriented: authority of the project manager is "High to almost total"
Calculate communication channels or pathscommunication!ERROR! undefined variable 'numberofindividualsx'
reframingtools & techinvolves viewing project complexity from varying perspectives = brainstorming
personaa set of similar end users described with their goals, motivations, and representative personal characteristics.
Process efficiencyagileis a ratio used in lean systems to optimize the flow of work.

Calculate the ratio between value-adding time and non-value-adding time.
Context diagramchart & diagramis a visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, requirements, needs, etc.), and how people interact with it.
Matrix diagramchart & diagram
is a quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix.
Meeting minutesare project records that are considered an organizational process asset (OPA) and could be archived for future reference.

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